With the introduction of the civil status “diverse”, specific anti-discrimination measures for inter* people are also legally required in work and professional life. In the implementation of discrimination-sensitive strategies, however, there is often (still) a lack of specific recommendations for action and corresponding support for the practical introduction. Support could for example be offered in the form of language templates for gender-neutral email salutations or suggestions for dealing with previously gender-segregated uniforms. In addition, there is great legal uncertainty as to how the civil status affects legal regulations that have until now been binary, such as “maternity leave” or other forms of so-called positive discrimination, for example through a “quota of women”.

The Federal Anti-Discrimination Agency published two studies in 2020 that provide extensive information on the topic of inter* people in work and professional life, identify problem areas and formulate specific recommendations for action.

“Gender diversity in employment and occupation – needs and implementation options of anti-discrimination for employers” (2020) 

This publication is explicitly aimed at employers and provides specific recommendations for action on how the workplace can be designed to be as sensitive to discrimination as possible. Based on the current state of research and on the basis of expert interviews, the study identifies and shows various areas of action for the anti-discrimination of intersex people in professional life then shows specific options for implementation for employers. In a total of 26 modules on the topics of corporate culture, recruitment, handling of gender-related data, language and communication, sanitary facilities as well as body, clothing and health, practical recommendations for action are formulated for professional practice, which should enable the recognition and implementation of gender diversity in working life. In addition, the publication refers to nationwide advice centres and other resources such as language guides and additional information material for education and raising awareness. You can order the study here or download it as a PDF file.

“Beyond male and female – People with variants of gender development in Federal labour law and public service law” (2020)

This second publication under the title explains the legal consequences of civil status with regard to work and the law of the public service. Since both areas of law have so far followed a binary gender model, the study will work out which areas of law are also applicable to intersex people with a diverse gender registration and in which areas the legislation will have to provide clarification in the future. For this purpose, the specific need for adaptation of various regulations is named for which gender is relevant as a constituent feature (such as regulations on “maternity protection”). The analysis not only takes German constitutional law into account, but also the law of the European Union, which plays a central role in relation to gender-based discrimination in the workplace. You can order the study here or download it as a PDF file.

The Institute for Diversity and Anti-Discrimination Research (IDA) has also published two studies on the topic of inter* in the workplace.

“Inter* in the office?! – The work situation of inter* people in Germany from a differential perspective to (endo*) LGBT*Q+ people” (2020)

The aim of this study was to examine the work situation of inter* people and to compare it with the experiences of endosex LGBT people. To this end, 32 inter* employees and 1223 endo* LGBT employees were asked about their work situation and experiences of discrimination in the workplace. The main results of the study are, for example, that all surveyed groups are still confronted with hostility and discrimination in the workplace. However, the discrimination was even stronger among inter* persons and trans* and/or non-binary persons who are (more) read as deviating from a binary gender norm. You can order the study here or download it as a PDF file. 

“Out in the office! Out with customers” (2021)

This study asked even more specifically about how LGBTI people deal with their own sexual orientation or gender identity in customer contact at work. To this end, 1,012 LGBTI people, 25 of them inter* people, were asked about their experiences in dealing with customers. The main results of the study are that respondents tend to deal more openly with their own sexual orientation or gender identity in customer contact than, for example, in contact with colleagues or superiors, and that between a fifth and a third of those surveyed stated having already had experience of discrimination in dealing with customers. You can order the study here or download it as a PDF file.

Intersex is the term used to define general inborn physical characteristics which do not correspond with society’s conventional binary view of gender. It can be understood in genetic, hormonal or anatomical terms.

Signs of being intersex can manifest shortly before birth, in infancy or during puberty. They also sometimes remain undiscovered. Inter* is described in many ways. Please take a look at our glossary if you would like to know more about the different terms and names.

How many intersex people are there?

This question is difficult to answer. The number of inter* people in Germany has never been officially documented. Moreover, the most appropriate ways to define intersex, male and female are being continually debated. Scientific research suggests that the number of inter* people among the general population lies at between 0.02 and 1.7 per cent.

Comparatively speaking, there are

  • nearly as many twins in Germany as there are inter* children.[1]
  • there are approximately the same number of red-haired people as there are intersex people.[2]

Being intersex is therefore not as rare as you would think. Yet not many people know about it because it has been a taboo subject for so long.

Variations in sex characteristics are not an illness.

Intersex is not an illness and does not generally pose a threat to health. However, some variations can be associated with specific health risks. Intersex is described by medicine by means of diagnoses. Medicine also uses the general term “disorders/differences of sex development”.  However, the term DSD has been criticised by organisations and activists because it gives the impression that there is something wrong with the bodies of intersex people and that they are somehow “faulty” and therefore require some form of treatment.

Does intersex need to be treated?

No. Intersex in itself does not require treatment. Because intersex bodies can be very different from each other, it is important that intersex people know their bodies well and know about the types of services that are provided on an individual basis. Unfortunately, cosmetic procedures are continually offered nowadays which do nothing to improve health, but can in fact achieve the opposite effect.[1] You will find information surrounding discussions on human rights here. You will find further information on health matters here.

[1] In 2017, 1.8% of all births in Germany were twins or multiple births (German Federal Statistical Office).

[2] Approximately 1 to 2% of German citizens are naturally red haired .

[3] Cf. Schweizer, Katinka/Richter-Appelt, Hertha (2012): Die Hamburger Studie zur Intersexualität In: Schweizer, Katinka/Richter-Appelt, Hertha: Intersexualität kontrovers. Giessen: psychosozial Verlag. pp. 187–205.

There is no registered inter* counselling service available in NRW.

However, the Verein Intersexuelle Menschen e.V. (Association of Intersex People e.V.) offers peer counselling outreach services.

“Peer counselling” basically means that the people providing the advice are themselves intersex or are the parents of an intersex child. They can draw upon their own experiences and provide advice on equal terms.

You can find out more about peer counselling services here.

Verein Intersexuelle Menschen e.V.  http://www.im-ev.de/

There is also a family self-help group, called Lila NRW, which meets regularly in Cologne. Further information can be obtained here: Email.

The website of the self-help group for parents and family members of inter* people (interfamilien) also provides information on personal meetings, literature and various topics related to inter*. 

You can also receive advice on physical matters from medical professionals. Experiences can vary greatly in this regard. It is important that you feel that you are getting good advice and that you feel comfortable throughout the process. It is a good idea to seek advice from support groups and to learn from other peoples’ experiences. Try to work with a doctor you feel you can trust.

Counselling services, which deal with the concerns of intersex people in a sensitive way, include:

Bochum (Rosa Strippe)

Rosa Strippe provides advice to inter* people and their relatives as part of an initial counselling service or “clearing” process (this involves establishing the kind of support that is needed and how it is going to be delivered). The staff have access to a well-researched pool of information, including the contact details of people from support groups and health services. Rosa Strippe provides advice on the protection and safety of intersex children, young people and adults in a subjective way. It deals with matters concerning gender diversity positively, placing the wellbeing of the child at the heart of the process.

Cologne (rubicon e.V.)

Rubicon e.V. also provides counselling services to intersex people, as part of its psychosocial counselling service, offering advice on issues such as sexual orientation, forming a rainbow family and gender self-determination.

Rubicon e.V. does not offer a specialised counselling service to inter* people, but instead performs a signposting role, referring people seeking advice to peer-counselling services such as the Verein Intersexuelle Menschen e.V. Being referred onto the peer counselling service is particularly helpful for inter* people who may be in the process of coming out and for the parents of intersex children who can get answers to the many questions they may have concerning medical matters.

Münster (pro familia)

pro familia Münster advises inter* people, their partners, families and friends competently, sensitively and confidentially. The topics of the consultation can be: Identity and self-description; body, coming out, relationships, local offers, experiences of discrimination, (unfulfilled) desire for children, parenthood of inter* children.

A number of counselling services offered by pro familia NRW, such as:

pro familia Bielefeld

pro familia Cologne Central

pro familia Mettmann

pro familia Oberhausen

pro familia Remscheid

pro familia Sankt Augustin

pro familia Witten

Further information and services offered by support groups (across Germany) can be found here: 

Support groups offering specific advice on diagnoseshttp://www.klinefelter.de/cms/
OII (Organisation Intersex International)  https://oiigermany.org/
Antidiscrimination initiatives & Empowerment for Inter* https://interprojekt.wordpress.com/
Kampagne für eine Dritte Option (Campaign for a Third Option) http://dritte-option.de/
DGTI (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Transidentität und Intersexualität e.V.) [German Association for Transidentity and Intersexuality] https://www.dgti.org/

Youth groups for LGBT people may also be of interest to young inter* people. Further information on LGBT youth groups in NRW can be found at Queeren Jugend NRW. Here you can find out whether issues concerning young intersex people have been taken into account and dealt with.

There is also a blog written by researchers based in Hamburg on the subject of inter* which provides advice on reading materials, events and information on gender diversity. This can be found at: Blog Intersex kontrovers.

The United Nations has also focused on inter* matters and has set up a campaign that calls for a greater awareness of the subject. Videos, accounts from intersex people and fact sheets can be accessed at: Free & Equal (Intersex Awareness by the United Nations). (English)

Intersex people have not often been seen in the public arena. They are rarely represented in series, books or on television.

We have brought together here a number of accounts by intersex people and their families who have shared various aspects of their lives with us.

There are a number of videos, articles and projects on the subject of intersex on the internet. We have listed a few them here: OII Europe (Organisation Intersex International, Europe) has gathered together the testimonies of inter* people from across Europe in the section of their website called #MY INTERSEX STORY. If you look on the project page, you will find videos and information about the project. Inter* people from across the whole of Europe tell their stories in the book. (The website and testimonies are in English)

The Interface Project, which was founded in 2012, portrays the various everyday realities of intersex people. The people introduce themselves in short videos and give accounts of their lives. Each video is accompanied by a transcript.

The TV programme Auf Klo on the public youth TV channel funk has a guest called Audrey from Switzerland in one of its episodes. Audrey talks about various experiences, such as the medical procedures, that she underwent as a child and teenager.

(The videos are in German, French or English. Most of them also have German subtitles..)

You can watch other videos by Audrey on her YouTube channel (Audr XY).

There is a video on Planet Schule, a website that provides education about the media, in which Lynn from Berlin explains what it is like to be intersex.

OII Europe’s YouTube channel includes a video entitled “My intersex story”.

(English with German subtitles.)

The German TV channel WDR also aired a segment in which a mother is interviewed about what it is like to have an intersex child.

Ted Talk by Emily Quinn – The way we think about biological sex is wrong (English with German subtitles). Emily Quinn is an author, graphic artist and an activist with InterAct. The books Inter*Trans*Express and Identitätskrise 2.0 are a collection of short stories, poems and drawings on everyday life and the protest activities of a “gender outlaw”. Both books describe personal experiences and highlight the viewpoints of inter* people.

Here is a list of further materials by intersex people:

Books and websites

This anthology includes short, personal stories by intersex people from all over the world:

Short stories, poems and drawings by an intersex person:

Websites on which intersex people tell their stories:

Other websites and pamphlets on Inter*:

  • Regenbogenportal – an online information service on same-sex lifestyles and gender diversity. An extensive range of useful and informative texts on the subject of intersex produced by the German Federal Ministry for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth (BMFSFJ).
  • Inter* und Sprache. a pamphlet relating to the antidiscrimination project by TransInterQueer.
  • If you want to explore the subjects of acceptance and diversity in more detail, you can find lots of recommended children’s books in the pamphlet Akzeptanz für Vielfalt.

Video clips

Recommended movies/documentaries:

Comics and graphic novels

The word “allyship” conveys the idea of connectedness, solidarity and support. In this context, allies are people, who are not intersex themselves, who support and campaign on behalf of inter* people and address their concerns.

We would like to highlight a number of ways in which it is possible to prevent discrimination against intersex people and to become an ally of inter* people. We would also like to explain a few things that need to be taken into account when considering the subject of “allyship”.

First of all, it is necessary to understand that people have different ideas about what it means to be an ally. Even though standing up for the rights of groups of people facing discrimination is commendable and worthwhile, it is sincerity, the type of action and tenacity that really count. It is not enough for an ally to simply describe the situation; the main objective should be to act and behave in an appropriate way.

Combat discrimination – everyone can help

The concept of binary gender is deeply rooted in many societies and is perpetuated through social practices. The practice of allowing intersex children to be operated on at an early age and to have their gender “aligned” with a prescribed norm stems from the deeply-held conviction that there are only two genders and all other perceptions of gender deviate from this and would not be accepted by society. Due to the concern that children would suffer discrimination over the course of their lives and would feel “defective”, numerous operations are carried out without the consent of inter* people instead of taking action against discrimination elsewhere. Fundamental changes, such as a change in public attitudes, are required to alter this situation. Here are a few tips on how to act in a supportive way and to show solidarity:

  • Talk openly. The more intersex is discussed and is better understood by society, the less invisible and stigmatised inter* people will be. Talk about the subject among friends, family and colleagues. Do not tolerate false or discriminatory statements.
  • Take gender diversity into account when you choose which words to use and throughout your everyday life. For example, you can try to speak in a gender-neutral way. Bear in mind that inter* people can identify as either binary or non-binary, just like endosex people. It is generally advisable to never to make assumptions about a person’s gender/gender identity based on a person’s appearance. It is more considerate to speak about and with people using their name and therefore avoid using gender-based personal pronouns (he/she, his/her, him/her etc.) until the people concerned have specified their preferences.

You can also talk to expectant parents you know about intersex and generally avoid asking expectant or new parents about the sex of their child. It is much more important to enquire about the wellbeing of the child and its name.

  • Support activists and/or organisations. There are a number of organisations with a great deal of expertise. They are part of a strong network and involve intersex people themselves, so it is not necessary to reinvent the wheel. (Examples include: www.oiigermany.org, www.ilga-europe.org, www.im-ev.de, www.dritte-option.de)
  • When supporting disadvantaged groups, it is important to focus on the people being discriminated rather than on yourself. Although you are naturally allowed to express your sympathy and dismay, you should remind yourself and others that you are lucky that you can fit into societal norms and can therefore enjoy a number of advantages. Share your advantages with inter* people by providing your support.
  • Do not pressure inter* people to spend their time drawing attention to matters such as gender construction. The needs of intersex people should be paramount.
  • Include the subject of inter* and the perspectives of inter* people in your work.

You can read more on the following websites:

Cosmetic operations on intersex children are carried out to this day. The number of operations on the genitals of children that do not correspond with the expectations of parents and medical professionals is not declining despite the campaign efforts of support groups and activists.[1]

Many organisations, such as the UN, Organisation Intersex International (OII), Amnesty International etc., define these surgical procedures as human rights violations because the children are not able to make decisions about their own bodies. These organisations believe that informed consent should be required from anyone who undergoes surgery. Parents should only be able to decide if their child should be operated on if the child’s health is at risk.

In addition to operations carried out without consent, there are other areas which can be considered as violations of human rights. For example, when the right to grow and develop in your own way is being violated or it becomes difficult to access your own health records.

Human rights, which are enshrined and protected by human rights law, presuppose that all people should be protected from discrimination and have the right to a private life. They should also be able to achieve the best level of health possible, and to be self-determined and recognised as individuals.

The human rights of intersex people are violated if

  • intersex is classed as a disorder.
  • surgical procedures are carried out on inter* children without consent.
  • informed consent is not taken seriously.
  • the right to grow and develop in your own way (particularly in terms of gender identity) is not respected.
  • it is difficult to access medical records.
  • it is difficult to join sports clubs and other organisations due to discrimination.

You can read a comprehensive report by OII Germany about human rights violations here.

In its survey (2020), the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) also asked inter* people about their experiences of discrimination. These can be viewed in detail on the FRA website. The LSVD has briefly summarized the data.

Amnesty International has also focused on the subject of intersex and human rights. On the Amnesty International website, you can also read stories by inter* people whose rights have not been and are not being protected.

You can also find some suggestions of what you can do to protect the human rights of inter* people in the document solidarity and support.

[1] Hoenes, Josch; Januschke, Eugen; Klöppel, Ulrike (2019): Häufigkeit normangleichender Operationen „uneindeutiger“ Genitalien im Kindesalter. Follow-up study. Berlin: Centre for Transdisciplinary Gender Studies.


Raising Rosie by Stephani and Eric Lohmann (2018). English: ISBN: 978-1785927676.

Mein intersexuelles Kind: weiblich männlich fließend. Clara Morgen (2013). ISBN: 978-3887472924.

Ich war Mann und Frau Mein Leben als Intersexuelle. Christiane Völling (2010). ISBN: 978-3771644550.

Non-fiction books

Die Schönheiten des Geschlechts: Intersex im Dialog. Katinka Schweizer (ed.), Fabian Vogler (ed.) (2018). ISBN: 978-3593508887.

Normierte Kinder. Effekte der Geschlechternormativität auf Kindheit und Adoleszenz. Erik Schneider, Christel Baltes-Löhr (ed.) (2014, 2018). ISBN: 978-3-8376-2417-5.

Geschlechtliche, sexuelle und reproduktive Selbstbestimmung. Praxisorientierte Zugänge. Michaela Katzer, Heinz-Jürgen Voß (ed.) (2016). ISBN: 978-3-8379-2546-3.

Intergeschlechtlichkeit. Impulse für die Beratung. Manuela Tillmanns (2015). ISBN 978-3-8379-2493-0

Academic publications

Zum Wohle des Kindes? Für die Rechte von Kindern mit Variationen der Geschlechtsmerkmale in Dänemark und DeutschlandAmnesty International (2017).

Gleiche Rechte – Diskriminierung aufgrund des Geschlechts” German Federal Anti-Discrimination Agency (2015).

Intersexualität in NRW. Eine qualitative Untersuchung der Gesundheitsversorgung von zwischengeschlechtlichen Kindern in Nordrhein-Westfalen. Projektbericht” Anike Krämer, Prof. Dr. Katja Sabisch (2017).

Newspaper articles

Wie Christian endlich Christian wurde” – Ze.tt.

Wenn das Kind weder Mädchen noch Junge ist – eine Mutter erzählt” – Neue Osnabrücker Zeitung.